On a surprise trip to Russia, Syria's Bashar Assad discussed potential new peace initiatives for post-war Syria with Russian President Vladimir Putin, who declared that Russia's two-year military campaign in Syria is wrapping up, the Kremlin said Tuesday.
Putin later spoke by phone with President Donald Trump, with Syria, Iran, North Korea and Ukraine on the agenda, according to the White House.
The Kremlin said Putin briefed Trump in the phone call about his talks with the Syrian leader and plans for a political settlement in Syria. It also said Putin called for coordination of anti-terror efforts with the U.S., adding that Afghanistan was also discussed.
Moscow released footage of Assad warmly embracing Putin, who hosted him in the Black Sea resort of Sochi on Monday, ahead of a summit between Russia, Turkey and Iran and a new round of Syria peace talks in Geneva later in this month.
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The meeting was unannounced and the Kremlin did not make it public until Tuesday morning.
"I passed to (Putin) and all Russian people our greetings and gratitude for all of the efforts that Russia made to save our country," Assad told Russia's top brass in televised remarks.
Assad has only ventured outside his war-ravaged nation twice since the conflict began — both times to Russia. This week's visit to meet Putin is his second since the crisis began in March 2011 leading to a civil war that has killed some 400,000 people and resulted in millions of refugees.
The first was in October 2015, weeks after Russia launched its military campaign in Syria to shore up Assad's forces, which turned the war in favor of Assad.
The meeting in Sochi, which lasted three hours, preceded a summit between the presidents of Iran, Russia and Turkey set for Wednesday at the same venue. Iran and Russia have been Assad's main backers while Turkey supports the opposition.
Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov said the Russian president had previously assured the leaders of Turkey and Iran that "Russia will work with Syrian leadership to prepare the groundwork for the understandings that could be reached in Sochi on Wednesday and to make sure that agreements that could be reached would be viable."
It wasn't immediately clear if the Kremlin put any pressure on Assad to accept a new deal brokered by Russia, Turkey and Iran — or whether that deal would involve Assad staying on as president once the war is over — but Assad signaled his intention to hold his ground in future Syria peace talks.
"We count on Russia's support to keep foreign players from interfering into the political process," he said during the talks with Putin. Assad is believed to have left Sochi after the meeting and returned to Damascus.
Asked whether Putin and Assad have talked about the Syrian president's future in post-war Syria, Peskov said "possible options for political settlement have been discussed" and added that "only the Syrian people could determine Assad's role."
Despite pressure from other nations that Assad step down, Moscow has insisted that it is up to the Syrian people to vote him in or out.
The Kremlin said Putin called Saudi King Salman as well as Trump to discuss the situation in Syria.
Trump and Putin spoke informally several times last week when they attended a summit in Vietnam. They agreed on a number of principles for the future of war-torn Syria.
To prepare for Wednesday's mini-summit, military chiefs of Russia, Turkey and Iran met in Sochi on Tuesday and agreed to coordinate their efforts in Syria.
Russia's defense ministry said the three military chiefs discussed in Sochi "concrete steps to complete the elimination of the remaining IS and Nusra Front formations" in Syria, referring to Islamic State fighters and Syria's al-Qaida affiliate as it was formerly known. The three also agreed to improve coordination in a safety zone in the Idlib province in Syria's northwest.
Russia, Turkey and Iran earlier this year brokered a truce between Syria's government and the rebels in four areas in Syria, including Idlib.
On Sunday, Syrian troops and their allies captured the eastern town of Boukamal, the last major urban area held by the Islamic State group in Syria, leaving the militants to defend just strips of desert territory and a besieged pocket outside Damascus.
With the Syrian government controlling most of the country and Islamic State fighters in disarray, Putin said during the talks with Assad that Russia's military campaign in Syria is wrapping up — though he made no mention of the Russian presence in Syria, which Moscow is not likely to give up.
"As for our joint work to fight terrorists in Syria, this military operation is coming to an end," he told Assad in televised remarks. "I note with pleasure your willingness to work with everyone who wants peace and settlement."
Putin declared in March 2016 that Moscow will scale down its presence in Syria, but the Russian military has remained heavily involved in the conflict.
Russian television showed footage of Putin and Assad entering a meeting with the top brass of Russia's defense ministry and the General Staff.
"I asked the Syrian president to stop by," Putin told the Russian generals. He then referred to Assad and said: "I would like to introduce you to people who played a key role in saving Syria."
Assad's office quoted him as thanking Russia and its military, which he said "gave martyrs and made efforts in Syria." He added: "I was very happy to know that you are here since you are the officers who directly took part in the battle in Syria."
Assad said the Russian Air Force helped Syrian troops in the fight against insurgents, helping many Syrians to return to their homes.
"In the name of the Syrian people, I greet you and thank you all, every Russian officer, fighter and pilot that took part in this war," Assad said.Associated Press writer Vladimir Isachenkov contributed to this report.