James Robinson, 71, is alleged to have carried out the abuse when he served as a Roman Catholic priest in Britain between 1959 and 1983. He moved to California in 1985 and was arrested in Los Angeles in January after he was tracked down by a BBC program and challenged in person by one of his accusers.
Robinson was taken into custody after a two-minute hearing at a court in Birmingham, 120 miles (190 kilometers) north of London.
West Midlands police said Robinson arrived at London's Heathrow Airport on Friday after being extradited. He faces 22 counts of sexual abuse. His next hearing is Nov. 3.